Hair Disorders of the Hair and Scalp

Define hair.
Hair is a slender, thread like outgrowth of the skin and scalp of the human body.

Why is the study of hair important to a cosmetologist?
The study of hair is of paramount importance to cosmetologists because hair is what they primarily deal with.

What are the main purposes of hair?
The main purposes of hair are adornment and protection of the head from heat, cold and injury.

What kind of treatment may cause the hair structure to become weakened?
Abuse of the hair by harmful cosmetic applications or faulty hair services can cause the hair structure to become weakened or damaged.

Give the name of the protein found in the hair.

Name the two parts into which the length of the hair is divided.
Hair root and hair shaft.

What is the hair root?
The hair root is that portion of the hair located beneath the skin surface.

What is the hair shaft?
The hair shaft is the portion of the hair structure extending above the skin surface.

What is the hair follicle?
Hair follicle is a tube-like depression or pocket, in the skin that encases the hair root.

What is meant by hair stream?
The direction of the natural flow of hair on the scalp.

For what foreign bodies are the mouths of hair follicles favorite breeding places?
Germs and dirt.

What is the hair bulb?
Hair bulb is a thickened, club-shaped structure forming the lower part of the hair root.

What is the Hair papilla?
Hair papilla is a small cone-shaped elevation at the bottom of the hair follicle that fits into the hair bulb.

What is the function of the paplilla?
The papilla has a supply of rich blood and nerves. These contribute to the growth and regeneration of the hair. Through the papilla nourishment reaches the hair bulb. The papilla has the ability to produces hair cells.

How does the hair receive its nourishment?
Through the papilla.

What muscle and gland are attached to the hair follicle?
Arrector pili muscle and sebaceous (oil) glands.

What causes "goose flesh"?

Fear or cold contracts the arrector pili muscle causing the hair to "stand up" straight.

What function is performed by the oil glands for hair?
The oil glands secrete an oily substance (sebum), which give luster and pliability to the hair.

List five factors that influence the production of sebum.
Diet; blood circulation, emotional disturbances, stimulation of endocrine glands, and drugs.

What determines the size and shape of the hair?

The shape, size and direction of the hair follicle.

Name three general shapes of hair.

Straight, wavy and curly or kinky.

Name three layers found in hair.
Cuticle, cortex, and medulla.

Which hair layer serves to protect its inner structure?
The cuticle.

Which hair layer contains the coloring matter?

The cortex.

Which layer is sometimes missing in very fine hair?
The medulla.

Which parts of the body do not contain any hair?
Palms, soles, lips and eyelids.

Briefly desribe the appearance of lanugo hair.
Lanugo hair is the fine, soft, downy hair of the cheeks, forehead and nearly all other areas of the body.

What is the function of lanugo hair?
It helps in the effiicient evaporation of perspiration.

What is meant by hair cycle?
Hair cycle is the growth, fall and replacment of the hair.

What is the average rate of growth of hair on the head?
About 1/2 inch per month.

List three ways in which climatic conditions will effect the hair?

A) moisture in the air will deepen the natural wave
B) cold air will cause the hair to contract.
C) heat will cause the hair to swell or expand and absorb moisture.

What is the average number of hairs shed daily?

50-80 hairs.

Briefly explain the hair replacement process.
The bulb loosens and separates from the papilla. The bulb moves upward in the follicle. The hair moves slowly to the surface, where it is shed. The new hair is formed by cell division at the root of the hair around the papilla.

What is the average life span of scalp hair?

2-4 years.

About how many hairs are on a head of:

a)blond hair; b) brown hair; c) black hair d) red hair
A) 140,000 B)110,000 C)108,000 D) 90,000

What is melanin?

Melanin is the coloring matter or pigment of the hair.

What causes the hair to turn grey?
Grey hair is caused by the absence of hair pigment in the corticle layer. In most cases, the hair graying is caused by age. It can also result from serious illness or nervous shock.

What is an albino?
An albino is a person born with white hair, the result of an absence of coloring matter in the hair shaft, accompanied by no marked pigment coloring in the skin or irises of the eyes.

What is; a) cowlick, b) whorl?
A) A cowlick is a tuft of hair standing up, B) a whorl is a hair that forms a swirly effect.

Name the four sense used when analyzing the hair.

Sight, touch, hearing and smell.

Name the four important qualities by which hair is judged.
Texture, porosity, elasticity, and condition of the hair.

Define hair texture.
Degress of coarseness of fineness in the hair.

Define hair porosity.
Ability of hair to absorb moisture.

Define hair elasticity.
Ability to hair to stretch and return to its original form without breaking.

To what extend can normal hair be stretched: a) when dry , b) when wet?
A) Dry hair can stretched about one-fifth of its length
B) Wet hair can be stretched from 40-50% of its length.

Disorders of the Scalp and Hair

How is dandruff recognized?
Dandruff is recognized by small, white scales that usually appear on the scalp and hair.

What is a direct cause of dandruff?
The excessive shedding of the epithelial cells.

List six conditions that may be the cause of dandruff.
Poor circulation, infection, injury, lack of nerve stimulation, improper diet, uncleanliness.

Give the medical term for : a) dandruff, b) dry type of dandruff; c) greasy or waxy type of dandruff.
A) Pityriasis, B) Pityriasis capitis simplex, c) Pityriasis steadoides.

What is meant by alopecia?
Alopecia is the technical term for any abnormal form of hair loss.

Is the ordinary falling out of hair considered a disease? Explain.
No. When hair has grown to its full length, it comes out by itself and is replaced by a new hair.

At what times of the year does the shedding of hair occur most frequently?
in the spring and fall.

What is alopecia senilis?
Alopecia senilis is a form of baldness occuring in old age.

Define alopecia prematura.
Alopecia prematura is a form of baldness beginning anytime before middle age with a slow thinning process.

What is alopecia areata?
Alopecia areata is the sudden falling out of hair in round patches or baldness in spots.

What is the common term for tinea?

What is the cause of tinea?
It is caused by vegetable parasites.

How is tinea transmitted from one person to the other?
It is commonly carried by scales or hairs containing fungi. Shower baths, swimming pools, and unsanitized articles are also sources of transmission.

What is the common name for pediculosis capitis? Should this condition be treated by a cosmetologist?

Head louse.No.

What is a furnuncle?
A boil.

What is the technical term for grey hair?


Give several causes of gray hair.
Worry, anxiety, nervous strain, prolonged illness, various wasting diseases and heredity.

What is meant by ringed hair?
Alternate bands of gray and dark hair.

Briefly desribe the following: a) trichoptilosis, b) hypertrichosis.
a) Trichotilosis is the technical name for split hair ends.
b) Hypertrichosis means superflous hair, and abnormal development of hair on areas of the body normally bearing only downy hair.

What is another term for hypertricosis?

Give the medical terms for: a) knotted hair, b) beaded hair.
a) Trichorrhexis nodosa.
b) Monilethrix.

What is meant by fragilitas crinium?
term used for hair that is split at any part of the hair length.


Dandruff consists of small, white scales that usually appear on the scalp and hair. It is also known by the medical term pityriasis (pit-e-riah-sis).
Long neglected, excessive dandruff may lead to baldness.
A dire cause of dandruff is the excessive shedding of the epithelial cells.
Instead of growing to the surface and falling off, the horny scales accumulated on the scalp.
Indirect or associated causes of dandruff are a sluggish condition of the scalp, occasioned by poor circulation, infection, injury, and lack of nerve stimulation, improper diet, and uncleanliness.


Psoriasis on the scalp is one of the most unsanitary, uncomfortable, and unpleasant manifestations of the disease which can occur, and the self-consciousness a client develops, because it is so visible, makes it all the more disturbing. Through the years, I have developed a herbal scalp treatment that has proven to be quite effective in ridding the scalp accumulating scales as well as enhancing the healing of the surface cells.

Psoriasis on the scalp can and does cause hair loss.


Behind the name you will find not only the best of natural herbs and other essentials, but also a principle, a philosophy if you will, whereby a conscientiously applied program in conjunction with the system is essential in bringing forth the results you desire.

The De Oliveira Hair Care System can provide the nutrients, cleansers and stimulators that improve and enhance the condition of the scalp and hair. The De Oliveira System is highly specific in it is actions and includes products for every possible hair and scalp type.

"It is my belief that health and beauty are one and the same, that nature's garden provides all of our necessities and that God grants all good things in response to our sincerest of efforts". Mariana De Oliveira


THINNING HAIR and HAIR LOSS is a significant factor in the lives of many men and women.
Some factors are:

- Stress
- Poor circulation
- Acute illness
- Surgery
- Radiation
- Skin disorder
- Weight loss
- Iron deficiency
- Diabetes
- Thyroid disorder
- Drugs such as those used in chemotherapy medication
- Poor diet
- Chemical damage
- Pregnancy


A thorough scalp massage is beneficial in the following ways:

1. The blood and lymph flow are increased
2. Nerves are rested and soothed
3. Scalp muscles are stimulated
4. The scalp is made more flexible
5. Hair growth is promoted and hair is made lustrous
6. Allows the hair follicles to receive the body's supply of essential nutrients with each movement described bellow:

- In scalp massage the hands are placed under the hair, apply firm pressure on criss cross strokes.

- When giving a scalp massage care should be taken to give the manipulations slowly without pulling the hair in any way. The longer you massage the more you benefit.


The special little places from which the hairs grow are very complicated and beautifully made.

Every hair really consists of six layers, all of which are made by the cells of the little hair bulb from which the hair grows.

But each hair requires to be looking after, or it will become brittle and will break off. So there are special glands - usually two to each hair - that produce a kind of oil that keeps the hair soft and pliable, and prevents it from cracking.

Also, every hair has a muscle which is attached to its root, and when this tiny little muscle contracts, it pulls upon the hair and makes it stand upright.

So when we read stories of people whose hair stood on end, it is quite possible that that really might happen, though it is not common.

We scarcely ever use these little muscles, and no one can use them by his own will. Like the hairs themselves, they are relies from the past.


ALOPECIA - term for loss of hair

ALOPECIA ADNATA - baldness at birth

ALOPECIA AREATA - baldness in spots or patches

ALOPECIA FOLLICULARIS - loss of hair as a result of inflammation of the hair follicles

ALOPECIA PREMATURA - baldness beginning before middle age

ALOPECIA SENILIS - baldness occurring in old age

ALOPECIA TOTALIS - complete loss of hair from the entire scalp

ALOPECIA UNIVERSALIS - means loss of all body hair